Law of Civilization & Decay, The : An Essay on History

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Almost all the Chinese see themselves as the children of Yellow River. But an hour afterwards, as we stood side by side peering into the darkness, Dominic was heard to mutter through his teeth ``_Le m tier se g te._'' I, too, had the feeling that the trade, if not altogether spoiled, had seen its best days. It is an important factor which will contribute to the realization of your thoughts. The Christians needed the Moors to teach them the cultivation of the silk worm, and the weaving of silk and other textiles.

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Publisher: Alfred A. Knopf; First English edition (1951)

ISBN: B0018KRQ30

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The two biggest killers of children worldwide today are polluted water and air World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Volume I - Beginnings to 1750 (Chapters 1-22) (4th Edition). Pure thought is a mightier force than electricity. The mind which is attracted by objects of sense, tends to bondage, while that which is not so attracted tends to emancipation. Manifest all your strength in the task of conquering your mind. Self-denial is a means to the purification and refinement of mind. The layers of ignorance covering knowledge, will not be removed without a calm mind Mexico. Moche ceramics, are the best known of ancient Peruvian artifacts, and are among the finest ever known. Their portrait-head effigy pots are especially notable for realistically depicting human features and portraying emotion. The reasons for the demise of the Moche are unknown, they may have succumbed to earthquakes, prolonged drought, or catastrophic flooding Up Close and Personal Portraits from Socrates to Hitler.

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Prokaryotic cells are limited in size because their energy production only takes place at their cellular membranes.� In ecosystems, the race usually goes to the quick, and it is very true with bacteria, as the smallest bacteria are faster and �win� the race of survival. [94] �Mitochondria increase the membrane surface area for ATP reactions to take place, which allowed cells to grow in size. �The average eukaryotic cell has more than 10 thousand times the mass of the average prokaryotic cell, and the largest eukaryotic cells have hundreds of thousands of times the mass (or around a trillion times for ostrich eggs, for instance, which exist as single-cells when formed).� Where an organism has the greatest energy needs, such as in muscle and nerve cells, the greatest numbers of mitochondria are found.� In a typical animal cell, dotted with hundreds of mitochondria, a single mitochondrion is the size of the prokaryote that became the mitochondrion, and is representative of prokaryote size in general.� That increased surface area to generate ATP allowed eukaryotic cells to grow large and complex.� There are quintillions (a million trillion) of those ATP Synthase motors in a human body, spinning at up to hundreds of revolutions per second, generating ATP molecules. [95] � It can help to th ink of mitochondria as �distributed� energy generation centers in eukaryotes, versus the �perimeter� energy generation in prokaryotes.� The new mode of energy production presented various challenges, but it allowed life to become large and complex. �Size is important, at the cellular level as well as the organism level.� Below is a diagram of a typical plant cell.� (Source: Wikimedia Commons) The primary adv antage that mitochondria provided was not only increased surface area for reactions, but unlike other organelles that began as bacteria (such as hydrogenosomes ), mitochondria retained some of their DNA. [96] � That DNA was probably retained by mitochondria that could make key proteins vital to their functioning on the spot, instead of waiting for the nucleus to send DNA �instructions.� �Essentially, mitochondria provided flexible power generation, like a field commander empowered to make decisions far from headquarters and quickly responding to conditions on the ground.� Mitochondria move around inside the cells and provide energy where it is needed.� That flexibility of decentralized power generation may be the mitochondrion�s chief contribution to making complex life possible, and that in turn led to many changes that are characteristic of complex life, some of which follow.� Perhaps a few hundred million years after the first mitochondrion appeared, as the oceanic oxygen content, at least on the surface, increased as a result of oxygenic photosynthesis, those complex cells learned to use oxygen instead of hydrogen.� It is difficult to overstate the importance of learning to use oxygen in respiration, called aerobic respiration .� Before the appearance of aerobic respiration, life generated energy via anaerobic respiration and fermentation. �Because oxygen is in second place for creating the most energetic reactions, aerobic respiration generates, on average, about 15 times as many ATP molecules per cycle as fermentation and anaerobic respiration do (although some types of anaerobic respiration can get four times the typical ATP yield ). [97] � The suite of complex life on Earth today would not have been possible without the energy provided by oxygenic respiration.� At minimum, nothing could have flown, and any animal life that might have evolved would have never left the oceans because the atmosphere would not have been breathable.� With the advent of aerobic respiration, food chains became possible, as it is several times as efficient as anaerobic respiration and fermentation (about 40% as compared to less than 10%).� Today�s food chains of several levels would be constrained to about two in the absence of oxygen. [98] � Some scientists have questioned oxygen's role in the rise of complex life and oxygen and respiration in eukaryote evolution. � Whether the first animals needed oxygen at all is controversial. [99] Compl ex life means, by definition, that it has many parts and they move.� Complex life needs energy to run its many moving parts.� Complexity�s dependence on greater levels of energy use not only applies to all organisms and ecosystems, but it has also applied to all human civilizations, as will be explored later in this essay.� When cells became �complex� with organelles, a tiny observer inside that cell would have witnessed a bewildering display of activity, as mitochondria sailed through the cells via cytoskeleton �scaffolding� on their energy generating missions, the ingestion of molecules for fuel and to create structures, the miracle of cellular division, the constant building, repair, and dismantling of cellular structures, and the ejection of waste through the cellular membrane. [100] � The movement of molecules and organelles in eukaryotic cells is accomplished by using the same protein that became muscle: actin. [101] � Prokaryotes used an ancestor of actin to move, and their flagella provide their main mode of travel, to usually move toward food and safety or away from danger, including predators Caesar and Christ: The Story of Civilization, Volume 3.