Castles and Cave Dwellings of Europe (EasyRead Super Large

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Though, despite all efforts, the ancient stabs were not found. The ecosystems may not have recovered from Olson�s Extinction of 270 mya, and at 260 mya came another mass extinction that is called the mid-Permian or Capitanian extinction, or the end-Guadeloupian event, although a recent study found only one extinction event, in the mid-Capitanian. [301] � In the 1990s, the extinction was thought to result from falling sea levels. [302] � But the first of the two huge volcanic events coincided with the event, in China .� There can be several deadly outcomes of major volcanic events.� As w ith an eruption in the early 1800s, massive volcanic events can block sunlight with the ash and create wintry conditions in the middle of summer.� That alone can cause catastrophic conditions for life, but that is only one potential outcome of volcanism.� What probably had far greater impact were the gases belched into the air. �As oxygen levels crashed in the late Permian, there was also a huge carbon dioxide spike, as shown by GEOCARBSULF, and the late-Permian volcanism is the near-unanimous choice as the primary reason.� That w ould have helped create super-greenhouse conditions that perhaps came right on the heels of the volcanic winter.� Not only would carbon dioxide vent from the mantle, as with all volcanism, but the late-Permian volcanism occurred beneath Ediacaran and Cambrian hydrocarbon deposits, which burned them and spewed even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.� Not only that, great salt deposits from the Cambrian Period were also burned via the volcanism, which created hydrochloric acid clouds.� Volcanoes also spew sulfur, which reacts with oxygen and water to form sulfurous acid. �The oceans around the volcanoes would have become acidic, and that fire-and-brimstone brew would have also showered the land.� Not only that, but the warming initiated by the initial carbon dioxide spike could have then warmed up the oceans enough so that methane hydrates were liberated and create even more global warming.� Such global warming apparently warmed the poles, which not only melted away the last ice caps and ended an ice age that had waxed and waned for 100 million years, but deciduous forests are in evidence at high latitudes.� A 100-million-year Icehouse Earth period ended and a 200-million-year Greenhouse Earth period began, but the transition appears to have been chaotic, with wild swings in greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures.� Warming the poles would have lessened the heat differential between the equator and poles and further diminished the lazy Panthalassic currents.� Th e landlocked Paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans, and perhaps even the Panthalassic Ocean, may have all become superheated and anoxic Canfield Oceans as the currents died.� Huge hydrogen sulfide events also happened, which may have damaged the ozone layer and led to ultraviolet light damage to land plants and animals.� That was all on top of the oxygen crash.� With the current state of research, all of the above events may have happened, in the greatest confluence of life-hostile conditions during the eon of complex life.� A recent study suggests that the extinction event that ended the Permian may have lasted only 60,000 years or so. [303] � In 2001, a bolide event was proposed for the Permian extinction with great fanfare, but it does not appear to be related to the Permian extinction; the other dynamics would have been quite sufficient. [304] � The Permian extinction was the greatest catastrophe that Earth�s life experienced since the previous supercontinent existed in the Cryogenian. [305] Siberian vol canism (which formed the Siberian Traps ) is considered to have been the main event.� The Chinese volcanism of ten million years earlier was a prelude, with other minor events between them, in a series of blows that left virtually all complex life devastated when it finally finished.� To give some perspective on the volcanism's magnitude, when Mount Tambora erupted in 1815 and caused the Year Without a Summer, it is estimated that the eruption totaled 160 cubic kilometers of ejecta.� The Siberian Traps episode lasted a million years and, although it was more of a lava event than an explosion (although there were also plenty of explosions), the total ejected lava is estimated at one-to-four million cubic kilometers.

Pages: 504

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant (November 28, 2008)

ISBN: 1427058350

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It is as if there really is a "national interest" represented in the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in the laws passed by Congress, the decisions of the courts, the development of capitalism, the culture of education and the mass media. "History is the memory of states," wrote Henry Kissinger in his first book, A World Restored, in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and England, ignoring the millions who suffered from those statesmen's policies The Problem of the Ohio Mounds. The New Year is traditionally received with a spectacular fireworks display at the port of Valparaíso that is transmitted by television to the entire nation. Until very recently, Chilean artists rarely obtained any financial support for their work from the state or other institutions. In 1992 the Chilean Ministry of Education created Fondart, a national fund for the development of art and culture Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture (Sixteenth Edition) (Vol. Volume C: Since 1789). The heads were carved from single blocks or boulders of volcanic basalt, found in the Tuxtlas Mountains. The Tres Zapotes heads, for example, were sculpted from basalt found at the summit of Cerro el Vigia, at the western end of the Tuxtlas. The San Lorenzo and La Venta heads, on the other hand, were likely carved from the basalt of Cerro Cintepec, on the southeastern side, perhaps at the nearby Llano del Jicaro workshop, and dragged or floated to their final destination dozens of miles away Mary Rose : a play in three acts. It was enough to feel the seduction of her native intelligence and of her splendid physique. And all that was brought home to me so quickly,' he concluded, ``because she had what some Frenchman has called the `terrible gift of familiarity. '' ``You will find everything extremely simple,'' he said. ``So simple that you will be quite able to hold your own Makers of History: Genghis Khan, Illustrated Edition.

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She was buttoned up to the chin like her husband. Well, that man had confessed to him that when he was engaged in political controversy, not on a matter of principle but on some special measure in debate, he felt ready to kill everybody. He interrupted himself for a comment. ``I am something like that myself. I believe it's a purely professional feeling. As to all our present masters and governors, all those people you are trying to turn round your little finger, they are all horrible Royalists in disguise Short History of the Reformation. Egyptian civilization was one of the oldest civilizations that flourished in the ancient world. Geographically located in the desert area around the Nile valley, it is said to have discouraged most attempts of hostile invasions, which is why it could survive for as long as 3000 years, which is a comparatively longer period of time as compared to the other ancient civilizations. The Mediterranean Sea to the North aided in trade and commerce Emperors of Rome: The Story of Imperial Rome from Julius Caesar to the Last Emperor.

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Chim panzees are the most tool-using non-human great ape, and female chimps make and use tools more often than males do .� One problem with studying today�s animals and applying those findings to their ancestors is that their line has evolved too.� The ancestor of chimpanzees when the split was made with the human line did not look like today�s chimpanzees, and probably did not act quite like them.� However, chimpanzees and gorillas adapted to environments that have not remarkably changed for the past 8-10 million years, and it is unlikely that they have dramatically changed over that time. �Orangutans are similar. �Scientists have argued that since there is little evidence of morphological change in those great apes in the intervening years since they split from the human line, particularly in their cranial capacity, that they probably act similarly today and have similar capacities to their distant ancestors. [463] � Today�s chimps have nearly the same-sized brains as australopithecines did. �They make and use tools, and an orangutan was even trained in captivity to make stone tools .� All great apes have learned to use sign language and some even invent their own signs .� I think it very reas onable to believe that relatively sophisticated tool use among humanity�s ancestors predates, perhaps by several million years, those stone tools dated to 3.4-3.3 mya.� Tools may be hundreds of millions of years old, and insects, fish, cephalopods, and reptiles use tools today.� The protohuman equivalent of Nikola Tesla (although it may have been a female) discovered how to bang two rocks together to create a hard edge used for cutting, perhaps with a little inventor�s serendipity.� It may not be possible to overstate the significance of that invention. [464] � More than a million years of free hands, due to australopithecine bipedal posture, probably led to the most significant tool-making event in Earth�s history to that time.� The shortening fingers and lengthening thumbs of australopithecines led to more dexterity, and in training today�s great apes to make stone tools, their relative lack of dexterity has been noted as an impediment.� Also, the increasing dexterity of the protohuman hand is linked with neurological changes, from the hands to the brain, as early protohumans took tool-making to a new level, in another case of mutually reinforcing positive feedbacks. [465] Although that australopithecine may have been the smartest member of its species, with an ape IQ that went off the scale, his or her brain was the same size as the fellow members of his or her species, but that would not last long.� The swift climb to the appearance of Homo sapiens had begun.� When that likely human ancestor made the first stone tool, it was the culmination of a process of increasing encephalization and manipulative ability that probably began its ascent with the appearance of apes and accelerated when humanity�s ancestors became bipedal .� Studying great apes today and applying those findings to humanity�s ancestors is problematic, but there has probably not been significant evolution in great apes since they descended from the last common ancestor that they shared with humans, particularly chimpanzees.� About one mya, bonobos split from other chimpanzee populations and became a separate species, but for many years scientists did not realize it. �Another chimpanzee split about 1.5 mya created east and west chimp species that are virtually indistinguishable today.� It is widely considered to be very likely that the last common ancestor of chimps and humans looked like a chimp. [466] Other than hu mans, rhesus macaques are Earth�s most widespread primates, and both species are generalists whose ability to adapt has been responsible for their success.� Rhesus macaques are significantly encephalized, about twice that of dogs and cats, and nearly as much as chimpanzees.� Rhesus macaques have what is called Machiavellian social organization, in which everybody is continually vying for rank and power is everything.� Those with rhesus power get the most and best food, the best and safest sleeping places, mating privileges, the nicest environments to live in, and endless grooming by subordinates, whom the dominants can beat and harass whenever they want, while those low in the hierarchies get the scraps and are usually the first to succumb to the vagaries of rhesus life, including predation. [467] � It is the same energy game that all species play .� But ev en the lowliest macaque will become patriotic cannon fodder if his society faces an external threat, as even a macaque knows that a miserable life is better than no life at all.� The violence inflicted seems economically optimized; within a society the violence is mostly harassment, but when rival societies first come in contact, the violence is often lethal, as the initially established dominance can last for lifetimes.� Within a society, killing a subordinate does not make economic sense, as that subordinate supports the hierarchy.� Potentates rely on slaves.� The human smile evolved from the teeth-baring display of monkeys that connotes fear or submission. [468] For all of th eir seeming cunning and behaviors right out of The Prince, rhesus monkeys cannot pass the mirror test; they attack their images, as they see themselves as just another rival monkey.� Chimpanzees, on the other hand, pass the mirror test, and the threshold of sentience, whatever sentience really is, may not be far removed from the ability to pass the mirror test, or perhaps humanity has not yet achieved it.� Capuchin monkeys, consid ered the most intelligent New World monkeys, have socially based learning, in which the young watch and imitate their elders.� Different capuchin societies have different cultures and different tool-using behaviors reflected in different solutions to similar foraging problems. [469] � Capuchins, isolated from African and Asian monkeys for about 30 million years, have striking similarities to their Old World counterparts, with female-centric societies and lethal hierarchical politics.� As with chimpanzees and humans, ganging up on lone victims is the preferred method, which increases the chance of success and reduces the risk to the murderers. [470] � Unlike rhesus monkeys, for instance, capuchin males can help with infant rearing, but they will also kill infants that they did not father, as rhesus, chimpanzees, and gorillas also do (that behavior has been observed in 50 primate species). [471] � Those comparisons provide evidence that simian social organization results from the connection between simian biology and environment; their societies formed to solve the problems of feeding, safety, and reproduction Assyria. Its Princes, Priests and People.

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While there is no prerequisite for AP World History, students should make sure that they are prepared for the course load associated with an Advanced Placement History course The History of Civilization in Europe - Primary Source Edition. When Henry All gre gave the house to Rita in the early days (long before he made his will) he had planned a complete renovation and this room had been meant for the drawing-room Civilizations: Culture, Ambition, and the Transformation of Nature. And for all you know he may be on the track of a masterpiece; but observe: if it happens to be one nobody will see it The Western Heritage, Vol. 1, 6th Teaching and Learning Classroom Edition. Don't make that serious face at me,'' she went on with tenderness in a playful note, as if tenderness had been her inheritance of all time and playfulness the very fibre of her being. ``I suppose you think that a woman who has acted as I did and has not staked her heart on it is. . A History of the Modern World. Either the Church is to be constituted as an exclusive society, endeavouring to satisfy all requirements of the believers, both "temporal" and "spiritual," paying no attention to the existing order and leaving nothing to the external world � this would mean an entire separation from the world, an ultimate flight out of it, and a radical denial of any external authority Old Civilizations of the New World. Below is a diagram of those dynamics.� (Source: Wikimedia Commons) A wa ter molecule containing oxygen-16 (the most common oxygen isotope) will be lighter than a water molecule containing oxygen-18 (both are stable isotopes), so it takes less energy to evaporate an oxygen-16 water molecule than an oxygen-18 water molecule.� Also, after evaporation, oxygen-18 water will tend to fall back to Earth more quickly than oxygen-16 water will, because it is heavier.� As a consequence, air over Earth�s poles will be enriched in oxygen-16 � the colder Earth�s surface temperature, the less oxygen-18 will evaporate and be carried to the poles � and scientists have used this enrichment to reconstruct a record of ocean temperatures. �Also, the oxygen-isotope ratio in fossil shellfish (as their life processes prefer the lighter oxygen isotope) has been used to help determine ancient temperatures.� During an ice age, because proportionally more oxygen-16 is retained in ice sheets and does not flow back to the oceans, the ocean�s surface becomes enriched in oxygen-18 and that difference can be discerned in fossil shells.� Sed iments are usually laid down in annual layers, and in some places, such as the Cariaco Basin off of Venezuela's coast, undisturbed sediments have been retrieved and analyzed, which has helped determine when ice sheets advanced and retreated during the present ice age. [8] Mass s pectrometers have been invaluable for assigning dates to various rocks and sedimentary layers, as radioactive isotopes and their daughter isotopes are tested, including uranium-lead, potassium-argon, carbon-14, and many other tests. [9] � Also, the ratios of elements in a sample can be determined, which can tell where it originated.� Many hypotheses and theories have arisen, fallen, and been called into question or modified by the data derived from those increasingly sophisticated methods, and a few examples should suffice to give an idea of what is being discovered Medieval Civilization: Selected Studies from European Authors.